Sunday, September 28, 2014

Impressions, strange knobs (or nipples or bosses) on ancient stonework of Cusco

Impressions made into the stone, and strange knobs, or nipples, on the stones; it seems as if there was no problem at all to do anything with the stone that they wanted to do!

Walls were not even a needle enters between the stone blocks. They can be found in different forms and sizes, but the general characteristic is the perfect fit, and als the knobs and impressions into the stones are generally present. The vitrified part is normally found on the borders. Sometimes also on other parts of the stone blocks we can recognize vitrification. Another characteristic of these walls is the print that the upper laying stones left on the lower laying stones, as if the weight of the upper stones gave the print in the once softer underlying stones.

Impressions that do not look like having been made with hammer and chisel but more look like a result of the pressure applied to a once softer rock (like a sort of clay), can be found also on these walls.
The knobs do not have a regular pattern, and can be found on different types and sizes of stones. Have a look at the slideshow below to get a good idea.


Impresiones hechas en la piedra, y perillas extrañas, o pezones, en las piedras; parece como si no hubo ningún problema en absoluto para tratar la piedra como querían!

Las paredes en donde ni siquiera una aguja entra entre los bloques de piedra. Se pueden encontrar en diferentes formas y tamaños, pero la característica general es el ajuste perfecto, y generalmente las perillas y las impresiones en las piedras están. La parte vitrificado se encuentra normalmente en los bordes. A veces también en otras partes de los bloques de piedra podemos reconocer la vitrificación. Otra característica de estos muros es que las piedras de colocación superior dejaron en las piedras de abajo una impressión, como si el peso de las piedras superiores dio esa huella a a las piedras de abajo porque fureon suaves.

Otro tipo de impresiones que no aparecen como si hubieran sido hechas con el martillo y el cincel, pero que se ven como un resultado de la presión aplicada a una roca, que alguna vez fue  más suave (como una especie de arcilla), también se puede encontrar en estos muros.
Las perillas no muestran un patrón regular, y se pueden encontrar en diferentes tipos y tamaños de piedras. Echa un vistazo a la presentación de diapositivas para obtener una buena idéa como se ven estas impresiones y perillas.

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Friday, April 25, 2014

Were high ages in antiquity possible because of less gravity?

One of the mysteries of the remote past is that people seem to have been able to reach high ages. References to those high ages can be found in for example the Bible or in stories on pre-dynastic egyptian kings and Gods. See these words in an article by Antoine Gigal;
From; by Antoine Gigal:
Unimaginably Long Reigns
All these sources speak to us about a lineage of gods who reigned each one for several hundreds of years, for a total of 23,200 years, then of a list of 'Shemsu Hor', called 'Followers of Horus', who reigned for 13,400 years. Then come the names of the 'normal' Pharaohs whom we know. The fact that divine and semi-divine sovereigns could each have reigned hundred of years is unacceptable in our view of things, but we should ask ourselves why we accept without flinching the hundreds of years of life of the people and prophets of the Bible, such as Enoch who lived over 360 years.'
This possibility of living thousands of years or hundred of years is normally interpretated differently; it does not fit the present paradigm about ancient cultures. It is than calculated towards more credible numbers, reasoning that they might not have been calculating in years. Still these references to longer lifespans exist.
What if these numbers were actually for real? Alfredo Gamarra found during his research an interesting reference that could explain longer lifes in the past. Based on his idea that gravity in the past was less, he heard about the Russian astronauts that were for a long time in space, and of whom it was detected that the process of cell renewal slowed down significantly in space. Reasoning that we only have a limited number of times that we can renew our cells, and that this number defines how long we could live, it is logic to think that one could live longer if this renewal process is slowed down.
A few more indications that these ideas are valid can be mentioned, for example with the loss of bone mass of astronauts in space;
From; :
'Bone and Muscle Loss - Weightlessness triggers bone mineral loss, where the density of weight-bearing bones (e.g., pelvis and leg bones) declines at the rate of one to two percent per month. Mimicking osteoporosis, the process begins with the atrophy of large weight-bearing muscles in the legs and reduces the torsion and compression on attached bones. The result is greatly reduced bone renewal and possibly a greater risk of forming kidney stones. Moreover, the heart will also lose muscle mass and weaken.
On Earth, the bone in our bodies is continually being renewed. Old bone is being absorbed, but new bone is formed. Without the stress of gravity, however, bone renewal is greatly reduced in space so that some astronauts have lost 20 percent of hip bone density. Accumulated bone loss may level off at about 40 percent, if the experience of paraplegics on Earth is applicable to prolonged exposure to microgravity.'
Another indication of especially slower growing stem cells in space are the reports on injuries of astronauts recovering much slower in space:
'Impaired Healing of Injuries - Astronauts have to be very careful when they're in space because minor injuries typically don't heal until they land back on Earth. The reason for this impairing healing is not well understood. It is known, however, that a cell's mitochondria -- its energy generators -- do not appear to function very well in microgravity.'
See also here; :
'bones no longer have to fight against Earth's gravity during locomotion. As a result, less mechanical strain is applied to the skeletal system Scientists think reduced stress on bones may be responsible for the progressive bone loss seen in long-term residents of space. (Lack of stress on bones among sedentary Earthlings, such as those confined to beds due to illness or old age, also contributes to bone loss.)'
An indication that the number of times that especially our stem cells can divide is the limit for our maximum lifespan, we can find out here in the following article;
'Blood of world's oldest woman hints at limits of life
'In van Andel-Schipper's case, it seemed that in the twilight of her life, about two-thirds of the white blood cells remaining in her body at death originated from just two stem cells, implying that most or all of the blood stem cells she started life with had already burned out and died.
'Is there a limit to the number of stem cell divisions, and does that imply that there's a limit to human life?' asks Henne Holstege of the VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, who headed the research team. 'Or can you get round that by replenishment with cells saved from earlier in your life?' she says.
The other evidence for the stem cell fatigue came from observations that van Andel-Schipper's white blood cells had drastically worn-down telomeres – the protective tips on chromosomes that burn down like wicks each time a cell divides. On average, the telomeres on the white blood cells were 17 times shorter than those on brain cells, which hardly replicate at all throughout life.
Of course in the case of astronauts, this loss of bone mass and slow recovery of injuries can be seen as negative effects. On the other hand it can be reasoned that one would not need the same bone mass in space. It is like a re-adaptation of the body to circumstances with less gravity. Life in the water has also less bone mass; most fishes have only cartilage except the biggest ones that develop some considerable bones, but less massive of course than similar sized land life.
Less stress on the body and bones, theorically means that the body could grow taller. Sealife, thanks to the gravity force being   compensated for the biggest part by the buoyancy effect, can indeed grow bigger than land life. Even astronauts grow a few inches taller in space thanks to less stress on the spine, although being full grown persons:
See :
'My How You've Grown!
Astronaut floating in orbit An Astronaut on an Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA)
Did you know that astronauts are up to 2 inches taller while they're in space? As soon as they come back to Earth, though, they return to their normal height. What happens in space is not an optical illusion, but one more example of how microgravity affects our bodies.

Imagine that the vertebrae in your back form a giant spring. Pushing down on the spring keeps it coiled tightly. When the force is released, the spring stretches out. In the same way, the spine elongates by up to three percent while humans travel in space. There is less gravity pushing down on the vertebrae, so they can stretch out - up to 7.6 centimeters (3 inches).
So would less stress on the body and cells also explain why cells grow slower? Would it be the reason why there are references to 'boneless people', or living spirits in the past? Would the race of fallen angels indeed have been a kind of angels in earlier times before they fell down? According to Alfredo Gamarra, the earth fell down 2 times during human history, which for him ment a change of orbit and an increase in gravity at the same time, which changed immediately the conditions for life on earth. See here the reference to boneless people;
'Humanity had run the course of two races before having developed a physical body comparable to the ones we are familiar with. What and where were these two races? The first is given no specific name, but it inhabited the 'Imperishable Sacred Land,' about which there is little information. It was a continent that lay in a quarter of the globe where the climate was suited to the forms of life then prevalent. At the end of its long history it was sunk by great cataclysms beneath the ocean. Men in this race were boneless, their bodies plastic'
So theorically, if gravity would have been less in earlier times, the effect of gravity force on the human body could explain 2 mysteries of the past, one of the high ages, and the other one the existence of giants!
With this principle of less gravity in the past in mind, one could also see the giant scale and the not yet understood sophisticated technology of ancient sites, in another light.

Don't forget to download the ebook 'The Discoveries of Alfredo Gamarra', give me the like on the fanpage so you can download it!